Disaster Risk Management Training Social Mobilization Unit(Kohistan)

Head Office:House # 82, Sector C Sheikh Maltoon Town, Mardan 

Date:     From 19/5/201      To    21/6/2011

Venue:   ACO Colony Dassu Kohistan
CO facilitated: 133
No. of Beneficiaries:  400
Trainers:  Mr. Adil Badshah

Contact # +92-937-868099, Email:  salik4@gmail.com

Disaster Risk Management TRAINING

Introduction
Kohistan is one of the wretched and most diffident districts of Khyber PukhtoonKhwa. Due to its grueling topography and hilly
terrain most parts of the district are only accessible by foot. On July 25, 2010 heavy spell of nonstop monsoon rain started
in morning brought huge disaster when flood broke out in 13 streams and rain buckets flowing across the district. Flood badly
affected the lives and property of the people living along the mighty river INDUS and streams falling in it. The heavy rain
continued for almost full day, swapped away almost 2217 houses and more than 200 shops in main bazaar Ranolia,Dubair Khas
Bazar,Adda Bazar Ranolia &Dubair Bala Bazar caused huge loss to human lives, livestock, agricultural land and
property.Further the Damage was maximized due to heavy rolling stones came through currents of water buckets and heavy trees
and wooden beams which were either fallen into streams being on the banks of streams, through landslidings or from sawmills
installed on the bank of streams specially in union councils of Dubair, Ranolia and Kandia. This was a great disaster for theinhabitants of Kohistan specially Dubair, Ranolia and Kandia which added to their already abysmal condition. Not only their
loved ones departed but they were also left with no cover and refuge. The most important sources of livelihood of the area
were livestock and agriculture but due to this disastrous flooding they lost their livestock and their agricultural lands.
Main Bazar Ranolia was the biggest and most vibrant bazaar in whole district has completely been vanished off due to harsh
waters affected the businesses of many people. Most of the people of this area were attached to the business of hostelling,
big general stores and Vegetable & fruit shops. As a tradition in the hilly and snowfall areas people stock grains, preserved
meat and vegetable so that they could live on this stock for the entire winter season has also been washed out.

Background
Salik Foundation has launched the Social Mobilization Program for the poor inhabitants of District Kohistan. Kohistan is one of the neglected and backward district of Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa. Salik Foundation has done many more for the Social Development of this needy and deserved district and currently performing its activities in the fields of Health, Education, Community Physical Infrastructure and Social Mobilization. Actually Education play a very pivotal role in the development of any society but unfortunately District Kohistan is very much back in the field of Education from the other parts of Pakistan. Salik Foundation not only worked in the Education sector in District Kohistan but also worked in the other aspects for the development of Kohistani society. Awareness and mobilization leads to any society towards progress and prosperity. So that Salik Foundation will very soon minimize the poverty ratio to a great extent.
It also started Livelihood Enhancement and Protection Program for the poor people of District Kohistan with the collaboration of Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund. Kohistan is on one side one of the neglected area of Pakistan while on the other hand it was crucially damaged by the flood. Flood went very back Kohistan from the other parts of Pakistan.
Similarly Salik Foundation takes initiatives on Disaster Risk Management which is cross cutting of both livelihood and social mobilization program. Salik Foundations established social institutions in shape of Village and Community Organizations in both Komila and Dassu union councils. During social mobilization VOs and Cos have been involved in capacity building trainings on different skills. In this regards VOs and COs were also trained on Disaster Risk Management because Kohistan is most vulnerable region in regards to potential Hazards and there is no such coping mechanism for dealing any emergency. So it dare needs to aware people about disaster risk management. Salik Foundation trained 400 people on disaster risk management. Sixteen (16) VOs and COs in both Kamila and Dassu attended DRM training.

 Training Objectives
•    To enhance the skills of Village Organizations and Community Organizations on Disaster Risk Management.
•    Manage disasters locally, using their own capabilities and skills to minimize harmful effects of disasters.
•    To raise awareness of local people about Community based disaster Risk Management.

Training  Contents   
  • Recitation;
    •    Introduction and Registration of participants;
    •    Norms settings;
    •    Expectation and challenges;
    •    Objectives of training;
    •    Basic definition & concepts of DRM;
    •    Global disaster Risk trends and importance of DRM in Pakistan;
    •    Introduction to hazards and its types, causes & preventive measures;
    •    First Aid application;
    •    Internally displaced persons: Issues and concerns;
    •    Review of previous day;
    •    Introduction to disaster  risk management frame work;
    •    Participatory community based disaster risk assessment;
    •    Introduction to community based hazard, Vulnerability, capacity and risk assessment, assessment tool:
    •    Disaster , preparedness and mitigation (with respect to conflicts, civil strife)
    •    Role of women in prevention, preparedness and response.

Training Methodologies
•    Lectures
•    Group Works
•    Brain storming
•    Role Play
•    Presentations

Training Process
Trainings started with the Recitation of Holy Quran. Formal Introduction was conducted by MT’s and participants. Training norms were made by participation of trainees for effective environment of class during training. Participants were explained the objectives of project. Current hazards and history of disasters were briefly told to the participants and importance of CBDRM (community based disaster risk management) was highlighted. After that expectations and fears of participants were asked and then cards were attached on the wall.

Expectations check list

•    We will be able to manage during any disaster by utilizing our local resources.
•    Get basic knowledge about disasters response and First Aid.
•    The training will be useful and helpful in any emergency
•    To serve community effectively and efficiently.
•    We will be able to develop our village and less the affect of disaster.
•    We will be able to have links with Government and Non Government organizations         during emergency.
•    We will be able to establish Disaster Management Committees in our village.

Process and procedure
Global Disaster Risk Trend:
Participants were brief about the importance of Disaster risk management.  Second world conference on Disaster risk management held at Japan in 2005 where 168 representatives of different countries participated.  Hyogo Framework of action was formed.
The HFA emphasizes that disaster risk reduction is a central issue for development policies, in addition to being of interest to various science, humanitarian and environmental fields. Disasters undermine development achievements, impoverishing people and nations. Without serious efforts to address disaster losses, disasters will become an increasingly serious obstacle to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
Help to attain the expected outcome, the HFA identifies five specific Priorities for Action:
1. Making disaster risk reduction a priority.
2. Improving risk information and early warning.
3. Building a culture of safety and resilience.
4. Reducing the risks in key sectors.
5. Strengthening preparedness for response.
Pakistan is most vulnerable country in respect with disasters specially earthquake, flood, Land sliding, drought and epidemics etc. In 2005 earthquake there was no such mechanisms that cope with such kind of apostrophe so government established ERRA which deals with two phases i.e rehabilitation and reconstruction of affected area.   Now in Pakistan National Disaster Management Authority has established in 2006 which is positive step toward disaster risk reduction. There were also shared wolrd potential hazards like climate change and global warming.

Different Types of hazards in Kohistan.
•    Earthquake
•    Land sliding
•    Lightening
•    Flood
•    Epidemics
•    Fire
•    Snowfall s
After identification of above mentioned hazards there would also made discussion on its causes and shared preventive measures and safety tips against each potential hazard.
First Aid:
Objectives of First Aid, Definition, Purposes of first aid, Qualities of First Aider, Triage, and History, Sign and Symptoms specific instructions for first Aider, DRs. ABC, Cuts, Wounds & its types, Control of bleeding, Fractures & its types, Chocking, Snake bites & Burns, Water-borne and food-borne diseases and CPR( Infant) CPR(Adult) were shared in detail. They also shared that they use some local herbs and traditional methods for wounds and they were using the traditional faith healer & unhygienic practices.

Internally displaced persons (IDPs) Causality handling
Different types of causality handling techniques were taught to the participants so that in the times of disaster people can help each other in a proper way during the transportation of casualties in order to minimize the effects of disaster or to save the lives of others. Different techniques are as follows.
•    Human crutch
•    Human cradle
•    Fire man lift
•    Pick a back
•    Human Crawl
•    Two handed seat
•    Three handed seat
•    Four handed seat
•    Ankle pull
•    Shoulder pull
•    Three man carry
•    Chair support method e.t.c.

At  first IDPs were defined that to whom called IDPs. After brain storming of participants it would assigned group work on charts, one group worked on issues facing during camping and another group worked on how to solve these problems. Each group presented their findings.
Group One finding as under:
Issues
•    Health
•    Shelter
•    Sanitation
•    Nutrition
•    Hygiene
•    Vail (Parda)
•    Cleanliness
•    Foods
•    Clean water
•    Accommodation
•    Conflicts
•    Language
•    Epidemics
•    Education

Group Two finding (solutions)
•    Establish camp committee
•    Coordination with government and non government organizations
•    Coordination with Administration.
•    Meeting with camp management
•    Meeting with community leaders
•    Make links with different institutions
All above points are described in detailed and arise discussion

 Introduction of Disaster management framework
It has shared disaster management framework in Pakistan which is as under.
•    National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
•    Provincial Management Authority (PDMA)
•    District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)
Now ERRA started pilot project for participation of community. ERRA designed project at Union council level where they established two structures.
•    Union Council Disaster Management Committee (UCDMC)
•    Union Council emergency Response Team (UCERT)
All above mentioned framework explained and discuss in detail with community.
Disaster management cycle was also discussed in detail with participants.

 Participant during presentation with master Trainer Participants in group work with Master Trainer

Participatory Risk Assessment
First  introduced participatory assessment for participants then different  tools of assessment shared with Participants.  Some tool to be used and practiced among them by dividing participants in different groups.  Tools which were practiced during training are as under.
•    Capacity and Vulnerability Map
•    Seasonal calendar
•    Disaster Time Line
•    Problem Trees
•    Village Profile
After completing exercise all groups presented finding of each groups and other groups made questions on them in this way great deal of discussion were made and showed fruitful result of exercise.

  HVCA (Hazard Vulnerability & Capacity Assessment)   

“Disaster/events Historical Profile and Impacts”

S # Year Disaster/Event Impact Coping mechanism CBDRM
 

1

1974 Earthquake 40 men died, 80 injured 360 houses destroyed, 600 goats and 150 cows died. Self help basis and Govt helped.

 

NIL
2 2005 Earthquake 30 persons died, 09 injured 14 houses destroyed and 300 Cattle died. Community worked on self help basis. Govt and NGOs.

 

NIL
3 2007 Flood 30 people died, 09 injured, 80 Cattle died and 14 houses destroyed. Self help basis. NIL
4 2010 Flood 11 peoples died 03 Injured and 135 houses destroyed and loss of agriculture land. Self help basis, Govt and NGOs.

 

NIL
5 2010 Lightening 05 small Govt houses and two vehicles destroyed. Self help basis and Govt helped. NIL
6 2009 Drought Loss of crops Self help basis. Nil
Disaster/events Historical Profile and Impacts”   written by participants in group work                                                                   
Map of U/C Komila drawn by participants in group work

Hazards/ Seasonal Calendar made by participants in group work

Local Hazards identified and Ranking

S # Hazard Total Ranking
1 Heavy Snow fall 12 A
2 Flood 10 B
3 Earthquake 06 C
4 Epidemics 05 D
5 Land Sliding 03 E

Hazards/Activities Seasonal Calendar

Hazards/Activities Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Earth Quake                        
Land sliding                        
 Heavy Snow fall                        
Flood                        
Lightning                        
Epidemics                        

Hazard and Resource Map Finding:
Capacity: Institutions, Mosques, BHU, Schools, Natural Resources, agriculture
Skilled people Like teachers, drivers, masons, carpenters, volunteers.
Vulnerability: Poor constructions and houses at wrong places, totally hilly area and at risk of Land Sliding, and local conflicts, Weak Leader ship, poverty, low education rate,

Preparedness and Mitigation with respect to civil strife 
In district kohistan there is a potential of manmade Hazard where conflicts arise and remain long time sometimes their conflict started between two castes or Qabails. In these conflicts there is a risk of bloodshed in a result many lives can lose at a time.  First we introduced conflict and management of conflict and then divided participants in to two groups. One group worked on causes of conflict and other group presented its solutions.

Finding of Group 1 (causes of Conflict)
•    Land issue
•    Forest
•    Marriage
•    Walking tracks
•    Roads issue
•    School buildings/ hiring of school support staff
•    Family conflicts
•      Trade
•    Trade of transportation
•    Conflict arise over children conflicts
•    Reasons for past conflicts
•    Gharit

Finding of Group 2 (solutions)
•    Jirga system
•    Shriyat
•    Courts
•    Mutual settlement
After completing task each group presented their findings and detailed discussion was made over each and every points mentioned above. They also discussed  on role of Cos  and Vos  in resolving  conflict at community level.

Role of Women in preparedness and Response
Kohistan is very sensitive in regards with women participations in development activities. First we explained role of women in Islam where women are allowed to get education and their rights from men as well. We discussed how to participate women in emergency situation. For this purpose participants were divided into  groups and told them what kind of role they could play in this regard not violating their norms, traditions, customs and Islamic values.

Findings of Groups
•    In emergency they can cook for affected people
•    They can help wounded women
•    They can help wounded children
•    They can play the role of psycho therapist
•    They can take training of first Aid
•    They can help in plantation movement
•    They can take participation in VOs and COs committees
•    They can help in agricultural development
•    They can get education and teach their children
•    They can participate in community decision making